An Historic Agreement at COP21: Methane-focused INDCs


Celebration! The negotiators in Paris declared an historic deal. But how was methane treated? Here’s a round-up of the post-2020 climate action commitments, known as Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) regarding methane. All of the following are taken from a CCAC analysis document found here (in collaboration with the Institute of Sustainable Governance).

(* indicates GMI Partner Country)


Oil & Gas:

Canada* intends to develop regulations to address methane emissions from the oil and gas sector, as well as greenhouse gas emissions from natural gas-fired electricity, chemicals and nitrogen fertilizers through its responsible sector-by-sector regulatory approach that ensures Canada’s economic competitiveness is protected.

Saudi Arabia* will take action to conserve, recover and reuse hydrocarbon resources and minimize flaring and fugitive methane emissions.


MSW & Wastewater:

Afghanistan will focus on waste management (solid waste management and wastewater recycling/composing of biodegradable waste instead of landfilling, and methane recovery from landfills).

Algeria intends to give priority to the management of household solid waste. It aims to achieve, by 2030, full coverage of its territory for the collection of waste, causing a considerable reduction in CO2 emission equivalent amounts. Algeria will focus on waste recovery and composting of organic waste and green waste; and recovery and energy recovery of methane from landfill centers and sewage treatment plants.

Burkina Faso will take the conditional actions of methane recovery from wastewater at the city’s purification station Ouagadougou and from the Solid Waste Landfill Technology Centre in the city of Ouagadougou.

Cameroon will strengthen its waste management policies (by 2035, all major cities should have landfills furnished with at least 70% methane capture):

– Promote the development of a circular economy;

– Recover / use agricultural and forestry waste; composting;

– Valuation / treatment of other waste (sewage treatment plant, fecal sludge, etc.).

China* will promote the reutilization of building wastes and intensifying the recovery and utilization of methane from landfills.

Dominica will install a flare to burn its currently vented methane, and will reduce the amount of organic waste in its landfills.

Ghana* will improve effectiveness of urban solid collection from 70% to 90% by 2030 and dispose all to engineered landfills for phase-out methane recovery from 40% in 2025 to 65% by 2030.

Grenada will construct a controlled (or capped) landfill with engineering techniques to compact and cover the waste and collect the methane gas generated for electricity production.

Lesotho will construct proper landfill sites in all 10 districts with methane recovery facilities.

Liberia will capture methane gas emitted from landfills and use for fueling vehicles, cooking at home or generation of power.

Marshall Islands will pre-sort its waste and entrap methane.

Mozambique will build and manage two solid waste landfills with the recovery of methane.

Oman will recover methane from solid waste dumping sites.

Turkey* will recover methane from landfill gas from managed and unmanaged landfill sites.

Uruguay will continue its policies of methane capture and flaring measures that have been implemented in landfills (in some cases with power generation) and cogeneration from agroindustrial and forest waste.

The United States* is developing standards to address methane emissions from landfills and the oil and gas sector.



Bangladesh will increase mechanization in agriculture leading to a reduction in numbers of draft cattle (and therefore lower methane emissions).

China* will control methane emissions from rice fields and nitrous oxide emissions from farmland.

The Gambia will reduce methane emissions through water management, less flooded areas and reduced fertilizer usage.

Uruguay will reduce methane emissions in rice production through flood management and other practices.

Vanuatu will work with New Zealand and other nations interested in mitigating methane and associated emissions for ruminant and pasture management.


Coal Mines

Afghanistan will strive for gas recovery in coal mines.

Bosnia and Herzegovina will install equipment for power generation from methane at two underground mines.


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